Allah Knows Best

Muslims are monotheistic, all-knowing God, and worship one- known as Allah.

All You need to Know about Caliphs of Islam masjid icon image

When you search on google, answers show, Mirza Masroor Ahmed as the current Caliph of Islam after Hazrat Abubakar R.A, Hazrat Umar R.A, Hazrat Usman R.A and Hazrat Ali R.A. Mirza masroor is qadiyani. (False Muslim and these all Propagandas against Islam to spread hatred against Islam, from google snippets false information.

Islam, Christianity, and Judaism are the world’s great monotheistic faiths. These religions share multiple same holy sites, such as Jerusalem, and prophets- Abraham. Generally, scholars refer these three religions as the Abrahamic faiths. It is believed that Abraham and Abraham’s family played a significant role in the formation of these religions.

After Christianity, Islam is the second largest religion in the world, with about 1.9 billion Muslims worldwide. Although the roots go back further, but scholars date the creation of Islam to the 7th century, making it the youngest of the religions. Islam started in Mecca, (in modern-day Saudi Arabia), during the time of the prophet Muhammad’s life. Today, the faith has spread rapidly throughout the world.

Some Interesting Facts of Islam masjid icon image

  1. Islam refers as “submission to the will of God.”
  2. Followers of Islam are Muslims.
  3. Muslims are monotheistic, all-knowing God, and worship one- known as Allah.
  4. Followers of Islam live a life of submission to Allah. They have strong believed that nothing is possible without Allah’s permission, humans have free will.
  5. Islam teaches- Allah’s word was revealed to the prophet Hazrat Muhammad SAW through the angel Gabriel.
  6. Muslims believe a lot of prophets were sent to teach Allah’s law. They respect all the prophets including Jesus, Noah, Christians, Ibrahim, and Moses. Muslims contend that Muhammad is the last prophet.
  7. Mosques are places for Muslims worship.
  8. Some of the significant Islamic holy places are the Kaaba in Mecca, the Prophet Muhammad’s shrine in Medina, and the Al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem.
  9. The Quran is referred as the holy text of Islam. However, Hadith is another important one. Muslims also admire some material found in Bible.
  10. Followers worship the God praying and reciting the Quran.
  11. All the Muslims strongly believed that there will be a day of judgment- another life after death.
  12. The word “jihad,” that means struggle is the central idea in Islam. This term has also been negatively used in mainstream culture. Muslims believe it significantly refers to internal and external efforts to defend their faith.
  13. The religion- Islam began with the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Islam means "surrender"- the main idea is a surrendering to the will of God. The central article of faith is- “There is no god but God and Muhammad SAW is his messenger".
  14. The Qur'an, provides little detail about Muhammad’s life. However, the hadiths (sayings of the Prophet) were largely compiled in the centuries following Muhammad’s death. Hadiths provide a larger event in his life.

About Last Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) masjid icon image

The last Prophet of Allah- Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) was born in 570 C.E. in Mecca. His early life was just unremarkable. Hazrat Khadija- the mother of Islam was the first wife of Holy Prophet. Muhammad was just 25 years old, but had earned a good reputation as a trustworthy man.

Around 610 C.E., the prophet had his first experience or revealing of Quran. The prophet was instructed to recite the verses by the Angel Gabriel. After a period of introspection, Muhammad accepted his role as the prophet of God and began to preach in Arabic and the first convert was his wife Khadija.

Muhammad's recitations form the Qur'an are organized into books (in the form of surahs and verses). These revelations were focused on a form of monotheism threatening to Mecca's ruling tribe (the Quraysh). Muhammad was a part of this tribe. The early Muslims faced many persecutions. Eventually in 622, the prophet and his followers fled Mecca for the city of Yathrib, known as Medina today. The Medina community welcomed him. This event is called as the Hijra, or emigration. In 622, the year of the Hijra (A.H.), was marked as the beginning of the Muslim calendar- that is still in use today.

Between 625-630 C.E., series of battles were fought between the Meccans and Muhammad as well as the new Muslim community. However, Muhammad (PBUH) was victorious and reentered Mecca in 630.

One of significant actions of Muhammad (PBUH) was to purge the Kaaba of all of its idols. The reason was, before this incident, the Kaaba was the center of pilgrimage for the polytheistic religious traditions with numerous idols of pagan gods. The Kaaba was built by prophet Ibrahim with his son, Ismail. After that, Kaaba was considered as the center for pilgrimage in Islam.

In 632, the prophet of God- Muhammad died in Medina. Muslims strongly believed that he was the last in a line of prophets.

After Muhammad's Death masjid icon image

The century following the death of last prophet Muhammad was dominated by military conquest and expansion. Muhammad SAW was succeeded by the “rightly-guided” Caliphs. The Qur'an is significantly believed to have been codified during Uthman’s reign. The 4th and final caliph, Ali, was married to Fatima- Muhammad’s beloved daughter. He was murdered in 661. However, the death of caliph Ali is an important event. His followers, believed that he should have succeeded Muhammad directly- known as the Shi’a (referring to the followers of Ali). Now, the Shi’ite community is categorized into various branches. There is large Shia population in Iraq, Iran and Bahrain. The Sunnis- do not hold that Ali should have directly succeeded Muhammad. They compose the largest branch of Islam and found across the Middle East, North Africa, Asia and Europe.

Why Have a Caliph? masjid icon image

The death of Prophet Muhammad in 632 in his adopted hometown of Medina caused crisis in the new Muslim community. Muhammad’s leadership was remarkable and unique that it crossed religious, political, and military spheres. It was in response to the crisis that the idea of a caliph as a ruler and sovereignty, concepts unique to Islam, was emerged. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) always seems to have accepted his mortality. There was no better idea that might rise from the dead or continue to lead the community after he passed away. He made it clear that he was the last of the Prophets with the chain of the 124,000 God-inspired preachers.

In early accounts, the Muslims made hasty arrangements upon their leader’s death in order to choose the closest companions of Muhammad. They choose the respected and aged Hazrat Abu Bakr, to lead the new community. Just two years later, he died and the Khilafat was succeeded by Umar, second only to Muhammad as guide and exemplar who ruled until his death in 644.

However, all these arrangements left a lot of questions unanswered such as Did the community need a leader at all? There were many Arabian tribes, who had pledged loyalty to Muhammad and felt, with his death the bonds were dissolved. This question was settled by force. Abu Bakr, Umar, and the elite of the Prophet’s tribe supported them sent out armies. In this way, the tribes became the rank and file of the Muslim armies. They conquered the Middle East in the following decades.

So, it was established that- yes, the Muslim community need strong and effective leadership. Immediately, it led to other questions and the most important was what title the leader should have?

Title suggestion masjid icon image

Clearly, he couldn’t be a Prophet, because Muhammad (PBUH) was the last of those. Titles by the Byzantine emperor or the Persian King were also out of the question- they belonged to old, and hierarchical order of Islam. However, in those years, two titles were used- one was Amir al-Mu’minin, which made the duties of the position clear. The Amir was referred as the military leader of the Muslims, but he would provide no spiritual leadership. The role would not need him to suggest answers to questions about religion and morals of Qur’an.

The second title- The office of caliph, emerged to fill this absence. This concept was successful as was considered flexible to the point of ambiguity. Caliph- an English word is derived from the Arabic khalifa, means either successor or deputy. The distinction between the two terms is vital for understanding what population wanted from the office. If it was termed as successor, then the caliph was the successor of Muhammad (for God, being eternal, can have no successor). At the same time, he was not a prophet. That means, he could inherit the more practical aspects of the Prophet’s role, but, not his duties as mediator of divine wisdom to mankind.

Another opinion also emerged over the choice of caliph and everyone believed, it should be a man. Some communities agreed that it must be chosen from early Muslim tribe- the Quraysh, but who should be selected and why? At this point, two school of thoughts were emerged. Firstly, the caliph of Islam should be the most pious and respectable person. That means, the caliph by the leading Muslims should be as the successor of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Being appointed by men—can make mistakes rather than chosen by God that means the caliph’s spiritual role would be limited. Keep in consideration, these opinions were to coalesce into the Sunni theory of the caliphate over the next four centuries.

This consensus was challenged with some other radical views of what the caliphate should mean. Some people suggested, in order to lead the community, the caliph should belong to the family of the Prophet meaning Muhammad’s blood descendants through his daughter Fatima (the only surviving child) and her husband, Ali. They argued, this was God’s decision that had chosen this family to lead the Muslims. It can be already argued that this God-chosen ruler would have an understanding. It was the Shi’i view of caliphate.

In the centuries- after the death of last prophet, the clarity of these differing points of view was repeatedly challenged. When the first caliph, Abu Bakr was chosen by the leading Muslims, excluding Ali. In the first three centuries of Islam, the Umayyad caliphs of Damascus (661–750) as well as the Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad (750–945) had a political control over much of the Muslim world.

After the mid-tenth century, their political influence contracted until they ruled only a small state in Iraq. The caliphs, unlike medieval popes, were not effective heads with the power to decide matters of doctrine or right behavior to religious scholars. At this point, many thinkers questioned the usefulness of the caliph.

During the Crusades of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, none of the caliphs provided effective leadership in a military or political level. However, it was left to the Kurdish adventurer Saladin in 1187 in order to lead the Muslim reconquest of Jerusalem. In 1258 the Mongols sacked Baghdad, rolling the last Abbasid caliph in a carpet under the hooves of their horses. Many pious Muslims were mourned. His death sparked no widespread clamor and the caliphate became obsolete.

The first caliphate become an important empire- how? masjid icon image

The original caliphate existed from 632 AD, after the death of Mohammed. Khilafat was ruled by four successive caliphs as well as grew over a remarkably short time to be one of the largest empires worldwide.

The four caliphs, or leaders of the Islamic community were ideal for military commanders. At the same time, the other two major empires, the Byzantine Empire and the Persian Empire were growing weak.

Under the last prophet- Mohammed, the Islamic community challenged as well as absorbed the Arabian peninsula's disparate tribes. Under the caliphs, it was invaded and took land from the Byzantines and Persians.

Remember that, the first caliphate wasn't just a big military empire, it was a community that encompassed all Muslims with the Islamic faith. The caliphate spread Islam. You can see the growth of Islam from a small corner to encompass virtually considering the Middle East, Central Asia, as well as even the southern tip of Spain.

The Caliphate spread the Arabic language, that was limited to present-day Saudi Arabia. Now, Arabic is considered a primary language thousands of miles away in Morocco.

The first caliphate was significantly based on Mohammed's original community. Over the next centuries, it was evolved into a second and third caliphates. The second caliphate begin in 661 and lasted until 750 AD. It is considered the largest and the most successful caliphate, making it the height of the Islamic world. Its capital was in Damascus (today the capital of Syria). The second caliphate expanded way into Central Asia and into Spain.

Why did the caliphates end? masjid icon image

The Ottoman Empire is claimed to be the last caliphate, lasted right up until 1914. Technically, there was a caliphate a century ago. However, when people talk about "the caliphates" they typically mean are the big imperial states- responsible to continue Mohammed's original vision of a unified political community around the Arabs who originally founded it.

Caliphate ended very roughly, around the year 1000 for two major reasons. First, the Abbasid Caliphate- the continuation of Mohammed's original community was scattered in a few places, in present-day Spain. Portugal broke off into the Cordoba Caliphate and you can't have multiple caliphates at a time.

The second reason was, the Islam was spreading naturally beyond the borders in sub-Saharan Africa and in southeast Asia. So, the caliphate was no longer included close to all Muslims. Moreover, the Ottoman Empire claimed to be a caliphate up until World War One. He took a control on holy sites in Mecca and Jerusalem. However, it was functionally operated as an empire that happened to be Islamic.

The caliphate that represents a unified community was easy enough to see through in the 7th century when that the community was small and geographically clustered. Islam has spread too rapidly for that dream to last. The last caliphate, the Abbasids, splintered under its own weight, with various parts of the empire breaking apart.

What Caliph do exactly? masjid icon image

Originally, the caliph was the person took two earthly responsibilities of the last prophet—Muhammad. First- rule over the unified Islamic state and secondly, responsibility for all the Muslims. Over the caliphate's growth, being the caliph started to be more about empire-running rather than religion. But, symbolically, the caliph was supposed to be the head of state as well as the top divine representative on earth. However, when the Abbasid Caliphate broke apart in the 1100s and 1200s, that role ended.

The title of caliph sticked around until the early 1900s. However, it was served as just a religious title- certain state would adopt if they happened to rule over enough Muslim holy sites. The important point it, it was held by Turks for a long time and they used it to claim responsibility for the global Muslim community.

The 4 Caliphs of Islam masjid icon image

Caliphate in Arabic “Khilafa” is the is ruled by an Islamic leader known as caliph (Khalifah). A caliph is a person known as the religious successor of the last Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) as well as rules the entire Muslim community. Basically, a caliph’s job was to provide Muslims with the desired leadership according to the commandments of Allah and Prophet Muhammad (SAW).

Those Caliphs who truly followed in the Prophet’s footsteps are “The Rightly Guided Caliphs”- Al-Khulafa-ur Rashidun. The four Caliphs of Islam are Hazrat Abu Bakar (RA), Hazrat Umar (RA), Hazrat Uthman (RA) and Hazrat Ali (RA). These caliphs were among the closest Companions of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW).

Together, these Khalifa ruled the Islamic state for about 29 years from 632 CE to 661 CE. They are renowned “Rightly Guided” as they ruled the people of that time according to the Holy Quran and commands of Hazrat Muhammad SAW. It was followed by the Umayyad Caliphate and the city of Medina was served as the first capital. Later on, the capital was moved to Kufa.

Hazrat Abdullah ibn Umar (radi Allahu anhu) said:

“Those who are desirous of following anyone, should follow the Sahaba who were the best of community, whose hearts were pure, whose wisdom was profound and who did not believe in the exhibition of outer life. They were a people whom Allah had selected His Nabi (Sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and who extended His religion to the world. Therefore, try to imitate their ways and manners, for by Allah, they were rightly guided people’.

Hadhrat Abu Bakr
(Radhi Allahu ‘anhu – May Allah be pleased with him) masjid icon image

Our beloved Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) was died in Medina. After his death, the leader of Muslim’s community- the first caliph was elected from Medina too. Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) was the best friend and father in law of Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Hazrat Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) was given the title of “As Siddique”. His real name was Abdullah and the father, ‘Uthman, was known as Abu Quhafah. His mother- Salma, was also known as Ummul Khair. Hazrat Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) was two and a half years younger than Hazrat Muhammad SAW and was the first Sahaba to accept Islam. He also accompanied the last Prophet Hazrat Muhammad SAW during the Hijrah to Madina.

Holy Prophet (PBUH) said about Hazrat Abu Bakar (RA): “O Abu Bakr! You will be my companion on the pond of Heaven as you were also my companion in the cave.” (Tirmidhi)

Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) was a merchant, he freed slaves, including Sayyiduna Bilal and Sayyiduna Umayyah bin Qahaf (radi Allahu anhu). He participated in all the battles in which the Prophet had to fight with the Kuffar.

Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) loved his faith more than anything else. At the Battle of Badr, Abdur Rahman (radi Allahu anhu)- his son was fighting on the side of the Kuffar. After accepting Islam,

Abdur Rahman (radi Allahu anhu) said to his father,

“O Father, at Badr, you were twice under my sword, but my love for you held my hand back.”

To this, Hazrat Abu Bakr replied,

“Son, if I had you only once under my sword, you would have been no more.”

At the time of the Battle of Tabuk, Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) donated all his wealth to the effort, and when Hazrat Muhammad asked him,

“What have you left for your family,” he replied, “Allah and His Rasool (PBUH)”

Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) established the authority by gathering the Muslims among whom conflicts occurred. He made great efforts regarding the compilation as well as protection of the Holy Quran. He also became a means of spreading Islam outside the Arabia, in Syria, Palestine, and Iraq, for the very first time. Abu Bakr (RA) enabled the Quran and Islamic ethics to be practiced in the period of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW).

Hazrat Abu Bakr led a very simple and pious life. He was a true servant of Allah and a meticulous follower of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). He always wore ordinary clothes and eat very simple. He contributed in house-hold work and would go out at night to seek the destitute. Humility and modesty were the main features of his character. He felt so embarrassed when people showered praises on him. He often fasted the day and spent the night in Salaah and meditation. Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) was a great orator and a master of genealogy. He used all his powers in order to promote the interest of Islam.

Hazrat Abu Bakar (RA) was respected by the public due to his noble characteristics. He had a great character that did not welcome people’s arrogant attitudes. He (RA) saved a lot of Muslim slaves by paying amounts of money to the masters of the slaves to set them free. One of the several contributions of Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) was the collection and compilation of the Holy Quran.

Hazrat Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) fell ill and passed away on the 21st of Jamadi-ul-Aakhir 13 A.H. His rule lasted 2 years and 3 months and died in the age of 63 years. He (RA) was buried next to the Prophet (PBUH).

Hazrat Abubakr Siddiq – teaches Perfection of Iman (Faith) and To Sacrifice Everything You Have

Abu Bakr as-Siddiq is the siddiqiya relationship in the perfection of character. That he gave everything to Prophet (saws) in order to establish that Prophet (saws) would say to the whole of creation.

لاَ يُؤْمِنُ أَحَدُكُمْ حَتَّى أَكُونَ أَحَبَّ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ وَالِدِهِ وَوَلَدِهِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ ‏”‏‏.

Qala Rasulullah (saws) “La yuminu ahadukum hatta akona ahabba ilayhi min walidihi wa waladihi wan Nasi ajma’yeen.”

“None of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father, his children and all mankind.” Prophet Muhammad (saws)

That is faith- that dialogue between Sayyidina Umar, Sayyidina Abu Bakr and Sayyidina Muhammad (saws). Means, you have to love me, you have to sacrifice your everything for Prophet and love Prophet (saws) more than you love yourself.

As Abu Bakr as Siddiq comes and says to be a siddiq (truthful), to be truthful and to be an upholding servant of the Divinely Presence that, ‘They granted you knowledge and struggle; now I’m going to come and perfect your character, that you sacrifice entirely for Prophet (saws).

وَقُل رَّ‌بِّ أَدْخِلْنِي مُدْخَلَ صِدْقٍ وَأَخْرِ‌جْنِي مُخْرَ‌جَ صِدْقٍ وَاجْعَل لِّي مِن لَّدُنكَ سُلْطَانًا نَّصِيرً‌ا ٨٠

17:80 – “wa qul Rabbi adkhelni mudkhala Sidqin wa akhrejni mukhraja Sidqin waj’al li min ladunka Sultanan NaSeera.” (Surat al Isra)

Say: “O my Lord! Let my entry be by the Gate of Truth and Honour, and likewise my exit by the Gate of Truth and Honour; and grant me from Thy Presence an authority [a King] to aid (me).” (Quran, The Night Journey 17:80)

Sayings of Abu Bakr (Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu)

  1. Always fear Allah as He knows what is in your hearts
  2. Be kind to those who are obedient to you and treat them well
  3. Give brief orders as long speeches are likely to be forgotten
  4. Improve your own behavior before demanding others to improve theirs
  5. Always speak the truth so that you may attain the right advice
  6. Be sincere to all those whom you deal with
  7. Refrain from cowardice and lies
  8. Remain far from bad company

Hadhrat Umar
(Radhi Allahu ‘anhu – May Allah be pleased with him) masjid icon image

Before he passed away, Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) consulted the Sahaba and elected Hazrat Umar as the second Caliph of the Muslims. Hazrat Umar was the son of Khattab. He is famous in Islam as “Al Farooq” or “One who Distinguishes between Right and Wrong.” His acceptance of Islam is very famous.

Hazrat Umar (RA) was born in 580 A.D almost 10 years younger than Holy Prophet (SAW). He (RA) was one of the few educated people of Makah at that time. He (RA) was physically strong and was recognized as a proven wrestler. He accepted Islam when he was going to kill (God forbid) Hazrat Muhammad (SAW). After listening the recitation of Quranic Verses in his sister’s house, he acknowledged the Ayahs as true. He (RA) embraced Islam at the hands of Holy Prophet (SAW). Due to his extraordinary ability, Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) gave him the title of Al-Farooq.

Umar (RA) was a very brave and straight-forward. He was uncompromising in Islamic principles and a talented ruler. During his Khilaafat, vast areas of the Persian and Roman empires and the whole of Egypt were brought under Islam. He conquered a lot of nations, opened Jerusalem, and paved roads in Medina. Some of the major contributions of Hazrat Umar Farooq (RA) include implementation of peace and justice, started the Islamic calendar and the formation of Baitul Maal for maintenance and provision of finances.

Umar (RA) was also a gifted orator and concerned for the welfare of the Muslims. He left an honourable legacy for Muslims, The Holy Quran was given to him by Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) for safe-keeping.

Hazrat Umar (RA) was a strong disciplinarian. He noticed the popularity of Hazrat Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu). He felt, people will lose trust in Allah and put all their trust in Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu). He feared- the people may think too highly of him, possibly increasing the self-esteem of Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu) that would also breed arrogance. So he removed Hazrat Khalid (radi Allahu anhu) and appointed Hazrat Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah (radi Allahu anhu) as the Commander in Chief of the Muslim army. Hazrat Khalid bin Walid (radi Allahu anhu) happily accepted the orders and served as an ordinary soldier- one of the best examples of Islamic teachings of obedience to leadership.

Devotion and simplicity were the main characters of Hazrat Umar (radi Allahu anhu). He used to wear clothes with patches and yet received Governors, convoys as well as diplomats. He took allowance from the State to have simple meal and simple clothes. He visited the old and sick people do their house work too. He also used to visit the houses of the soldiers and ask about their families. He awaked at night in Salaah and kept Fast. He supported and upheld the cause of Islam, with his wisdom and bravery.

A Persian non-Muslim, named Firoz and complained to Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) about his master, Mughirah bin Shuba (radi Allahu anhu), who imposed tax. Hazrat Umar (radi Allahu anhu) told Firoz, the tax was reasonable, it made Firoz angry.

The next day, during the Fajr, he stabbed Hazrat Umar (radi Allahu anhu) 6 times in the back, wounding the Caliph. Three days later, Hazrat Umar (radi Allahu anhu) passed away in 23 A.H. in the age of 63 years. Hazrat Umar (RA)n ruled the Islamic State for 10 years, 6 months and 4 days. He (RA) was also buried alongside Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) as it was his wish.

And then all of them were connected to Muhammad (saws). All of them connected to the center, receiving that power and that light. That means the authority from the central is in charge of all four directions- the reality of Prophet (saws) holds them together.

There’s no coincidence that he’s at the station of war and the station of struggle. The nation was not standing up for itself until Prophet (saws) asked from Allah, ‘Send me one of Umar’– why? Because

وَ قُلْ جَآءَالْحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ الْبَطِلُ، إِنَّ الْبَطِلَ كَانَ زَهُوقًا

17:81 – “Wa qul jaa alhaqqu wa zahaqal baatil, innal batila kana zahooqa.” “And say, “Truth has come, and falsehood has perished. Indeed falsehood, [by its nature], is ever perishing/bound to perish (Surat Al-Isra 17:81)

(Surat Al-Isra)

There are certain verses that always are on these levels. (Holy Quran 2:31)

وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الْأَسْمَاءَ كُلَّهَا…٣١

2:31 – Wa ‘allama Adamal Asma a kullaha,… ”

(Surat al Baqara)

“And He taught Adam the names of all things …”

And that Umar must come to perfect our soul. You have to struggle for what is correct. Don’t stay silent to oppression, not the oppression outside. Now amr bil ma’roof, they are lying. They want to go and correct everybody but not correct themselves.

وَلْتَكُن مِّنكُمْ أُمَّةٌ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى الْخَيْرِ وَيَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ ۚ وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ ﴿١٠٤

3:104 – “Waltakun minkum Ummatun yad’oona ilal khayri wa yamurona bil ma’roofi wa yanhawna ‘anil munkari, wa olayika humul muflihoon.”

(Surat Ali ‘Imran)

“And let there be [arising] from you a nation inviting to [all that is] good, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong, and those will be the successful.”.

(Holy Quran, The Family of ‘Imran 3: 104)

The amr bil maroof is about yourself and comes against oppression in yourself. It comes against your bad character; destroy everything within you before you can possibly judge anyone else.

Sayings of Umar (Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu)

  1. Do not be misled by a person’s reputation
  2. Do not estimate a person by his performance of outward actions but look at his truthfulness and wisdom
  3. Do not leave your work for tomorrow
  4. He who does not recognize evil can easily fall into its trap
  5. Judge a person’s intelligence by the question he asks
  6. It is easier not to commit sins rather being sorry for them afterwards
  7. Be grateful to the one who points out your defects

Hadhrat Usman
(Radhi Allahu ‘anhu – May Allah be pleased with him) masjid icon image

When Hazrat Umar (RA) fell under the assassin’s dagger, before He (RA)’s death people asked him for nominating his successor. He (RA) appointed a committee consisting of six of the ten companions of Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (SAW). Hazrat Ali (RA), Hazrat Usman(RA), Abdul Rahman, Sa’ad, Al-Zubayr, and Talha were also present in order to select the next caliph. After the long discussion, Hazrat Usman was selected as the third caliph of Islam.

Hazrat Usman(RA) was born in 573 A.D. He was almost two years younger than Prophet (SAW). He (RA) was one of the few knowledgeable people in the Makah at that time. Hazrat ‘Usma n(radi Allahu anhu) belonged to the Ummayah- tribe of the Quraish. He was also known as “Al Ghani” or “The Generous.” He was a rich cloth merchant; his father’s name was Affan and his mother was Urwa.

Hazrat Usman accepted Islam at the invitation of Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) and migrated to Abyssinia with his wife, Hazrat Ruqayyah (RA) daughter of Hazrat Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). After her death, married Sayyadah Hazrat Kulthum (radi Allahu anha)- another daughter of Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH). Because of this, he (RA) earned the title of “Zun Noorain”. Hazrat Usman took part in all the battles with Holy Prophet (PBUH)- except the Battle of Badr.

He (RA) was very rich man. He spent most of it in the true service of Islam such as buying a well from Jew and making it free for use for all Muslims as well as acquiring a portion of land to enlarge the capacity of Masjid e Nabavi.

Hazrat Usman (radi Allah anhu) was a very kind and simple person. His kindness did not allow him to take strong action against the trouble makers. Because of his simple-mindedness, the administration was not as disciplined as it was during the Khilaafat of Hazrat Umar (RA). Hazrat ‘Usman (RA) was a generous man and he used to spend a lot of money for Islam to free the slaves. He had a great fear and love for Allah and Hazrat Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Although he was very wealthy, but he always led a simple life. He fasted every second of third day and spent major night were spent in Salaah.

A significant achievement of Hazrat Usman (RA) was the duplication of the Holy Quran from all the records kept by Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA), that was handed it to Hazrat Umar (RA). Further, it was handed it to his daughter, Hazrat Hafsa (RA)- the wife of Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). A committee was established- the only copy of the Quran was reproduced. The reason is, some people pronounced the verses differently due to the difference of dialects. Hazrat Usman (RA) made copies of the Holy Quran and sent it to capitals such as DamascuS, Kufa, Basrah, Makah, and Makkatul Mukarramah each accompanied by a Sahabi for the guidance of the readers.

In this way, the original of the Quran reached today. Hazrat Usman (RA) improve vineyards and orchards during his caliphate. A lot of people accepted Islam in his period. An incredible development of this period was, the Muslims became rich as well as started to lead a better life.

The Governors of the provinces, appointed by Hazrat Umar (RA) were replaced by members of the new Caliph’s clan. The new governors were inspired by worldly means than by piety and interests of their subjects. People started to demand the replacement of these Governors. However, the Caliph did not respond. Delegates from Iraq and Egypt submitted their demands to the Caliph. However, this situation got out of control. In the turmoil, Hazrat ‘Usman (radi Allahu anhu) himself was made Shaheed by rebels when he was reading the Holy Quran. This happened on the 17th of Zil Hajj in 35 A.H. at the age of 84 years old. Caliphate period of Hazrat Usman (RA) lasts in 656 A.D. He (RA) was buried in Jannatul Baqi- a graveyard in Medina.

وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الْأَسْمَاءَ كُلَّهَا…٣١

2:31 – Wa ‘allama Adamal Asma a kullaha,”

(Surat al Baqara)

“And He taught Adam the names of all things …”

At the level of knowledge, Hazrat Usman (RA) is responsible for knowledge. He’s is the compiler of Holy Qur’an that means- No Usman, no compiled Qur’an. He (RA) encoded everything by order of Holy Prophet (saws). The means the station of knowledge and reality begins to open.

الرَّ‌حْمَـٰنُ ﴿١﴾ عَلَّمَ الْقُرْ‌آنَ ﴿٢﴾ خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ ﴿٣

55:1-3 – “Ar Rahmaan. ‘Allamal Qur’an. Khalaqal Insaan.”

(Surat Ar Rahman)

“The Most Merciful. (1) It is He Who has taught the Qur’an. (2) He has created Man. (3)”

(Holy Quran, 55: 1-3)

Hadhrat Ali
(Radhi Allahu ‘anhu – May Allah be pleased with him) masjid icon image

After the death of Hazrat Usman (radi Allahu anhu), Hazrat Ali (radi Allahu anhu) was elected as the fourth Calip. During the period of the first three Caliphs, Madina continued to be the capital of the Muslim world. However, Hazrat Ali (RA) transferred the Islamic capital to Kufah in Iraq.

Hazrat Ali (RA) was the son of Abu Taalib- uncle of Hazrat Muhamamd (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). He was born in 600 A.D and the first young who accepted Islam. Hazrat Ali (RA) was married to Hazrat Fathima (RA), the beloved daughter of Hazrat Muhammad (SAW). They had 3 sons named Hazrat Imam Hassan, Hazrat Imam Hussain and Hazrat Mohsin (RA).

He (RA) was known for his bravery. He was the great soldier of Islam and earned the title of Asadullah (The Lion of Allah) due to his great valor. He (RA) lived a simple life with gratefulness to the Lord. He (RA) was known for his humility. He had a great love for learning and had been given the title of “Baabul I’lm” or “Gate of Learning” by Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

Hazrat Ali (RA) took part in the battle of Badr, Khaibar, and Khandaq. At Khaibar battle, it was Hazrat Ali (RA) who subdued the Jews with his furious assault. He held many positions during the time of Holy Prophet and the first 3 Caliphs before him.

The situation in Madinat after the murder (Shahaadah) of Hazrat Usman (RA) was serious. Hazrat Ali (RA) first task was to rid Medina of the rebels in order to return the situation to normal. Hazrat Ali (RA) was able to force the rebels to withdraw from Medina to establish peace and order. The powerful governor of Syria, Mu’awiyah, challenged Hazrat Ali (RA) refused to pay homage to him. Mu’awiyah (RA) insisted that Hazrat Ali (RA) arrest the murderers of Hazrat Usman (RA) and hand them over to him.

Hazrat Ali (RA) was a man with a deep sense of justice. He needed a peaceful period in order to trace the culprits. However, Hazrat Mu’awiyah (radi Allahu anhu) began accusing him of protecting the murderers. In this way, the old enmity between these two families was revived. On the 17th of July 659 A.C., Hazrat Ali (RA) overcame the Khaarijees in a battle, in which, it is said, that 40 000 lives were lost.

Hazrat Ali (radi allahu anhu) lived a very simple life. He refused all luxuries and wore simple clothes thinking of the poor. He prefers to sleep on the ground and sit on the floor. He did manual labor, repaired his clothes and shoes. He spent nights in Salaah and fast for three days in a row. Justice, honesty, piety, justice and love of truth were his main marks.

Being the fourth caliph, Hazrat Ali (RA) tried his best to unite Muslims. He (RA) tries to bring peace, but the resistance from hypocrites become very strong. He (RA) fought and destroyed most of the rebellion movements. Hazrat Ali (RA) defeated the Umayyad in the battle of Nahrawan. Hazrat Ali (RA) remained caliph of Islam for five years. Hazrat Ali (RA) was martyred with a poisoned sword by one of the rebels in the mosque on 20th of Ramadan, 40 A.H (661 A.D), at the age of 63 years of age.

Sayings of Ali (Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu)

  1. Fear of Allah makes one feel secure
  2. One who recognises himself, recognises his Creator
  3. If you love Allah, tear out the love of the world from your heart
  4. The best person is the one who is most helpful to his fellow men
  5. A hypocrite’s tongue is clean but sickness lies in his heart
  6. One who thinks himself as the best is the worst
  7. One who is proud of his worldly possessions is this short life is ignorant
  8. Learned men live even after death whilst ignorant men are dead although alive
  9. The sign of a stupid person is his frequent change of opinions
  10. Better alone than in bad company

Interesting Facts about the Caliphs of Islam

  1. The "ibn" in the names mean "son of"- in Arabic. So, Usman ibn Affan means "Usman son of Affan."
  2. Fatimah (RA), Ali's wife and Muhammad's beloved daughter, is an important figure in Islam. Under Muhammad (PBUH), Abu Bakr served as the leader of the 1ST Islamic pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca.
  3. Hazrat Umar (RA) was a physically powerful man. He was also known as a great athlete and wrestler.
  4. Hazrat Umar (RA) was a physically strong and powerful man. He was also known as a great athlete and wrestler.
  5. Umar was known as Al-Farooq means "the one who distinguishes between right and wrong." Usman was Muhammad's son-in-law. He married two of Muhammad's daughters. He (RA) married the second daughter after the first passed away.
  6. After the death of Hazrat Ali (RA)- Umayyad Caliphate took control.